Jessica Sees All - A Grammatical Commentary / by Anthony Gibbins

Today’s page has only two sentences. The bare bones of the first sentence are Jessica certa fit Marcellum in periculo esse Jessica becomes certain Marcellus to be in danger or, in more natural English, Jessica becomes certain that Marcellus is in danger. Marcellum in periculo esse is an Indirect Statement. We saw yesterday that in an Indirect Statement the Subject of the Verb is in the Accusative Case - Marcellum - and the Verb itself is in its Infinitive form - esse to be. esse is expanded upon by the Adverb nunc now. periculo danger is described by the Adjective magno great. The entire sentence has the Adverb interea meanwhile joining it with what has gone before. Jessica is described by the Present Active Participle despectans looking down upon. despectans has two Objects which are linked together by the Conjunction et and; these are Monadem Monas and omnia – an Adjective playing the role of a Noun – everything. despectans is also expanded upon by the Prepositional Phrase e tecto out of or from the roof.

Jessica meanwhile, looking down upon Monas and everything from the roof, becomes certain that Marcellus is now in great danger.

The second sentence is scit eum monedum esse. scit she knows sets us up for another Indirect Statement. The Accusative Subject of the Indirect Statement is eum him. The Infinitive Verb is esse to be. eum is described by the Gerundive monendum, a most interesting word. There is no English equivalent of the Latin Gerundive. The Gerundive monendum is a form of the Verb moneo monere to warn. When a Noun and Gerundive are linked with a form of esse - as they are here - the Gerundive is called a Gerundive of Obligation and means something like needing to be warned. Thus a literal meaning would be something like She knows him to be needing to be warned. We will need to smooth that out, however, for our translation.

She knows that he must be warned.